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Elongated stigmas, called silks, emerge from the whorl of husk leaves at the end of the ear. Maize is increasingly used as a feedstock for the production of ethanol fuel. Popcorn (popped corn, popcorns or pop-corn) is a variety of corn kernel which expands and puffs up when heated; the same names are also used to refer to the foodstuff produced by the expansion.. A popcorn kernel's strong hull contains the seed's hard, starchy shell endosperm with 14–20% moisture, which turns to steam as the kernel is heated. Unripe maize must usually be cooked to become palatable; this may be done by simply boiling or roasting the whole ears and eating the kernels right off the cob. Solon Robinson. However, little of this maize is eaten directly by humans.  The stem is commonly composed of 20 internodes of 18 cm (7 in) length. Research is being done to make diesel out of the biogas by the Fischer Tropsch method.  In 2014, total world production was 1.04 billion tonnes. The farm that consumes the feed may produce it, purchase it on the market, or some of both. However, a widespread problem of malnutrition soon arose wherever maize was introduced as a staple food. Z raw plantains Scientific name: Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) Common name: Maize Aphid; Corn Leaf Aphid Synonyms: Aphis maidis Fitch Ethiopian name: Yebekolo Kish Kish. More information on the definitions of … When the tassel is mature and conditions are suitably warm and dry, anthers on the tassel dehisce and release pollen. In Jackson Spielvogel's view, many centuries of artificial selection (rather than the current view that maize was exploited by interplanting with teosinte) by the indigenous people of the Americas resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several cobs per plant, which were usually several centimetres/inches long each. Plant & Animal Genomes XVI Conference, "Functional conservation of plant secondary metabolic enzymes revealed by complementation of Arabidopsis flavonoid mutants with maize genes", "Scientists have high hopes for corn genome", "Researchers sequence genome of maize, a key crop", "The B73 Maize Genome: Complexity, Diversity, and Dynamics", "A cornucopia of Helitrons shapes the maize genome", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, "A Green Revolution, This Time for Africa", "Post-green-revolution trends in yield potential of temperate maize in the north-central United States", "Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2016 – ISAAA Brief 52-2016", "National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), Agricultural Statistics Board, US Department of Agriculture, Acreage report for 2010", "ISAAA Pocket K No. , Doebley was part of the team that first published, in 2002, that maize had been domesticated only once, about 9,000 years ago, and then spread throughout the Americas.  Stands of silage maize are yet denser, and achieve a lower percentage of ears and more plant matter. Peronosclerospora philippinensis (W. Weston) C.G. It still grows in the wild as an annual in Mexico and Guatemala.. Class lollipopsida.order poales family poaceae genus zea .specie z mays The maximum size of kernels is reputedly 2.5 cm (1 in). The stalk continues downward and is crumpled into a mangled pile on the ground, where it usually is left to become organic matter for the soil. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. A number of questions remain concerning the species, among them: The domestication of maize is of particular interest to researchers—archaeologists, geneticists, ethnobotanists, geographers, etc. Maize starch can be hydrolyzed and enzymatically treated to produce syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup, a sweetener; and also fermented and distilled to produce grain alcohol. This protein has been linked to a rare and understudied allergy to maize in humans. Estimating the substitution of distillers'grains for corn and soybean meal in the U.S. feed complex.  Some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. Higher energy costs affect these costs, especially transportation. Maize, or corn, is a monocotyledonous plant, being a member of the grass family.Corn (Scientific name, Zea mays) is also known as maize. how domestication could have proceeded without leaving remains of teosinte or maize with teosintoid traits earlier than the earliest known until recently, dating from ca. It is unclear how common this allergy is in the general population. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. It is the main ingredient of corn tortilla, tamales, pozole, atole and all the dishes based on them, like tacos, quesadillas, chilaquiles, enchiladas, tostadas and many more. Weeds are controlled through the use of herbicides, and no cultivation tillage is done during the growing season.  The six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, popcorn, flour corn, and sweet corn. The pericarp of the fruit is fused with the seed coat referred to as "caryopsis", typical of the grasses, and the entire kernel is often referred to as the "seed". In the midwestern United States, low-till or no-till farming techniques are usually used. F raw green soybeans China produced 22.4% of the global total. , Maize is a major source of both grain feed and fodder for livestock. In low-till, fields are covered once, maybe twice, with a tillage implement either ahead of crop planting or after the previous harvest. Raw, yellow, sweet maize kernels are composed of 76% water, 19% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and 1% fat (table). "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate, even more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities. Coarse maize meal is made into a thick porridge in many cultures: from the polenta of Italy, the angu of Brazil, the mămăligă of Romania, to cornmeal mush in the US (or hominy grits in the South) or the food called mieliepap in South Africa and sadza, nshima, ugali and other names in other parts of Africa.  The leaves arise from the nodes, alternately on opposite sides on the stalk. vasculorum (sugarcane gumming disease), Xanthomonas vasicola pv.  This was confirmed by further studies, which refined this hypothesis somewhat. , After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize, and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. ", CBOT Corn Futures Contract Overview via Wikinvest, "National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28", "Nutrition facts, calories in food, labels, nutritional information and analysis", "USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6", "The origins of maize: the puzzle of pellagra", "Nutrients involved in energy metabolism", "Managing Sweet Corn Pests in Massachusetts", List of top international rankings by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maize&oldid=994176974, Crops originating from indigenous Americans, Crops originating from Pre-Columbian North America, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2014, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Illustration showing male and female maize flowers, production of starch, corn oil, sweeteners (, human consumption—grits, corn flour, corn meal, beverage alcohol, It has been derived from hybridization between a small domesticated maize (a slightly changed form of a wild maize) and a teosinte of section, It has undergone two or more domestications either of a wild maize or of a teosinte.  The two plants have dissimilar appearance, maize having a single tall stalk with multiple leaves and teosinte being a short, bushy plant. Genus: Zea. parviglumis, native to the Balsas River valley in Mexico's southwestern highlands, and also known as Balsas teosinte, as being the crop wild relative that is genetically most similar to modern maize. Whole ears of maize were often stored in corn cribs, and these whole ears are a sufficient form for some livestock feeding use. Subphylum: Angiospermae. 2011. Maize, scientific name Zea mays, also known as corn or mielie/mealie, is one of the most extensively cultivated cereal crops on Earth. The effect of biofuel production on other food crop prices is indirect. Common Name. More maize is produced, by weight, than any other grain, and almost every country on Earth cultivates maize commercially for a variety of uses. Maize is bought and sold by investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity using corn futures contracts. Later, maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths. In the United States, a good harvest was traditionally predicted if the maize was "knee-high by the Fourth of July", although modern hybrids generally exceed this growth rate. It was believed that beginning about 2500 BC, the crop spread through much of the Americas. U.S. Weed Information. Later breeding efforts included ear to row selection (C. G. Hopkins c. 1896), hybrids made from selected inbred lines (G. H. Shull, 1909), and the highly successful double cross hybrids using four inbred lines (D. F. Jones c. 1918, 1922). "Feed maize" is being used increasingly for heating; specialized corn stoves (similar to wood stoves) are available and use either feed maize or wood pellets to generate heat.  The Olmec and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica; they cooked, ground and processed it through nixtamalization. This randomly selects half the genes from a given plant to propagate to the next generation, meaning that desirable traits found in the crop (like high yield or good nutrition) can be lost in subsequent generations unless certain techniques are used. mays, from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. Modern technique plants maize in rows which allows for cultivation while the plant is young, although the hill technique is still used in the maize fields of some Native American reservations. avenae (bacterial leaf blight), Acremonium maydis (black bundle disease: maize), Aeneolamia contigua (spotted spittlebug of pastures), Agromyza parvicornis (corn blotch leaf miner), Agrotis exclamationis (moth, heart and dart), Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed), Alternaria brassicae (dark spot of crucifers), Amaranthus blitoides (spreading amaranth), Amaranthus graecizans (prostrate pigweed), Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp), Anomala cupripes (large green chafer beetle), Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy), Aulacophora hilaris (pumpkin flea beetle), Barley yellow dwarf viruses (barley yellow dwarf), Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode), Blastobasis graminea (sugarcane borer moth), Borreria latifolia (broadleaf buttonweed), Brachiaria paspaloides (common signal grass), Busseola fusca (African maize stalk borer), Caliothrips striatopterus (black thrips of maize), Callitettix versicolor (sugarcane spittlebug), Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas), Candidatus Phytoplasma solani (Stolbur phytoplasma), Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma), Carpophilus hemipterus (dried fruit beetle), Caulophilus oryzae (broad nosed grain weevil), Ceratocystis paradoxa (black rot of pineapple), Cerodontha denticornis (grass sheath miner), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (anthurium thrips), Chilo auricilius (gold-fringed rice borer), Chilo polychrysus (dark-headed striped borer), Chilo suppressalis (striped rice stem borer), Chlorophorus annularis (bamboo tiger longicorn), Choanephora cucurbitarum (Choanephora fruit rot), Chrysodeixis eriosoma (green looper caterpillar), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. Considering the low average maize grain yields that are still pervasive in farmers’ fields, meeting the projected increase demand for maize grain in Africa presents a challenge. Legal Status. , In 2016, maize production was forecast to be over 15 billion bushels, an increase of 11% over 2014 American production. Maize is used as a fish bait, called "dough balls". Insect-resistant maize was grown in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Egypt, the European Union, Honduras, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, South Africa, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United States, and Uruguay. There are two major species of the genus Zea (out of six total): Zea mays (maize) and Zea diploperennis, which is a perennial type of teosinte. Maize's scientific name is "Zea mays" and they belong to Kingdom Plantae, Maize is classified among Angiosperms or Flowering Plants. Chrysanthemin is found in purple corn and is used as a food coloring. This reduces the supply of the other food crops and increases their prices.. There are many races or strains of the fungus. Maize has suboptimal amounts of the essential amino acids tryptophan and lysine, which accounts for its lower status as a protein source. how the tiny archaeological specimens of 3500–2700 BC could have been selected from a teosinte, and. , Maize flowers may sometimes exhibit mutations that lead to the formation of female flowers in the tassel. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. The idea of a maize maze was introduced by the American Maze Company who created a maze in Pennsylvania in 1993.  There is conflicting evidence to support the hypothesis that maize yield potential has increased over the past few decades. , Maize is preferred in formal, scientific, and international usage because it refers specifically to this one grain, unlike corn, which has a complex variety of meanings that vary by context and geographic region. , The Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center, funded by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and located in the Department of Crop Sciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, is a stock center of maize mutants.  The p1 gene encodes an Myb-homologous transcriptional activator of genes required for biosynthesis of red phlobaphene pigments, while the P1-wr allele specifies colorless kernel pericarp and red cobs, and unstable factor for orange1 (Ufo1) modifies P1-wr expression to confer pigmentation in kernel pericarp, as well as vegetative tissues, which normally do not accumulate significant amounts of phlobaphene pigments.  On November 20, 2009, the consortium published results of its sequencing effort in Science. 62 pp. For this purpose, variegated and colored leaf forms as well as those with colorful ears are used. The teosinte origin theory was proposed by the Russian botanist Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov in 1931 and the later American Nobel Prize-winner George Beadle in 1932. Cochliobolus heterostrophus; this is the name for the sexual stage; the asexual stage is known as Bipolaris maydis (previously it was Drechslera maydis and before that Helminthosporium maydis).There are different races. , Genetically modified ( GM ) maize was introduced as a fish bait, silks. Maize harvesting was by manual labour, by grazing, or hermaphrodite flowers, and contact in tropics! Your homework questions linked to a certain degree by the use of the earliest plants. 6700 years ago `` baby corn '' used as a tourist attraction to produce many additional developed ears Edouard! Into maize. 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