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), Cephaleuros causes leaf spotting and shedding and the photosynthetic activity of the foliage is reduced. Different species of Cephaleuros grow as parasites on various angiosperms causing severe damage to leaves and shoots. All individuals are affected, so the pathogen must adapt or die. Unsuitable chemical composition or pH of the soil can be damaging to plants. Tomato, tobacco, corn, legume, potato, pea, sugar beet, cucumber, maize, cauliflower, sugarcane, bean, etc. The drying and dying of leaves specially of grasses, maize and tobacco, for want of water is firming. GCSE Science Biology (Combined Science) learning resources for adults, children, parents and teachers. Diseases caused by non-parasitic causal agencies are known as non-parasitic diseases or physiological diseases, also known as deficiency diseases. Why? The effect of sugar exudation is rather negligible. Share Your PPT File. These tend to select for resistant variants of the pathogen. Open […] Faulty mineral nutrition can predispose plants to attack by some pathogens. Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. In addition to direct injury to foliage indirect injury is claimed because of soil changes, such as the acidity of the smoke depleting the soil of calcium carbonate and thus reducing the number and hampering the activity of nitrifying bacteria. Different plants react differently with regard to soil-moisture variations. 344A). Inbreeding Often they are of little importance in themselves, but make a plant so weak as to make it possible for one of the specific organisms of the first group to attack it. Like animals, plants also suffer from verities of diseases. (i) Diseases classified in relation to their occurrence: Study of plant diseases in relation to their occurrence (interaction of populations of plants, pathogens and environment) is known as epidemiology. Some of the important epiphytotic outbreaks are: The Irish famine of 1945 and 1946 due to the destruction of the potato crop by the late blight of potato disease; the destruction of vineyards in England in 1845 and in France in 1848, by downy mildew disease; the devastation of the flourishing coffee plantation of Ceylon caused by coffee rust disease; and the destruction of sugarcane industry of the West Indies in 1895 by the rind disease. Death or injury- is often by the escape of artificial illuminating gas into the soil or by the escape of steam over-heating the soil, encountered in young succulent plants which are sensitive to some of the constituents of illuminating gas. Most common boron-deficiency disease in sugar-beet is heart and dry rot. Prolonged mechanical stress (MS) causes thigmomorphogenesis, a stress acclimation response associated with increased disease resistance. They are called plant pathogens when they infect plants. After reading this article you will learn about: 1. Another common high-temperature injury is sunscald of vegetables, particularly of tomato. This is called a monohybrid cross and examples include some of Mendel’s original experiments, where he chose true-breeders for a single trait and crossed them with members carrying a different allele. and Phoradendron sp. Diseases resulting from the second or non-parasitic group of causal agencies are frequently very difficult to diagnose. The sporadic disease is rather an epiphytotic disease except that its occurrence is at very irregular intervals and in lesser areas. Wilting is recognizable from drooping of leaves and stem tips. There are large number of parasitic algae of which special mention may be made of the genus Cephaleuros. ... 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