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vinyl chloride uses

Reprinted from Industrial Medicine and Surgery. Decreased male libido, spontaneous abortion, and birth defects are known major reproductive defects associated with vinyl chloride. VCM will react with iron and steel in the presence of moisture. [5][17] Vinyl chloride is a gas at normal atmospheric temperature and pressure. The product is a geminal dihalide (both halogens are bonded to the same carbon).…. History. "Toxicological Profile for vinyl chloride". They are also used in the manufacture of electrical wire insulation and cables, piping, industrial and household equipment, medical supplies, food packaging materials, and building and construction products. It is volatile, so the primary exposure is via inhalation as against food or water with occupational hazards being highest. The explosive limits are: lower 4.0%, upper 22.05 by volume in air. Heating 1,2-dichloroethane in the presence of a charcoal catalyst gives vinyl chloride. [2] The United States currently remains the largest VCM manufacturing region because of its low-production-cost position in chlorine and ethylene raw materials. This production method is cheaper than preparing EDC from acetylene, which is why it has become the major route to vinyl chloride since the late 1950s. VC use did not occur when nitrate was provided as the electron acceptor. John Creech from B.F. Goodrich discovered angiosarcoma (a very rare cancer) in the liver of a worker at the B.F. Goodrich plant in Louisville, Kentucky. Nat Catal (2020). In 1912, Fritz Klatte, a German chemist working for Griesheim-Elektron, patented a means to produce vinyl chloride from acetylene and hydrogen chloride using mercuric chloride as a catalyst. The furnace effluent is immediately quenched with cold EDC to stop undesirable side reactions. Several million tons of PVC are sold on the global market each year. Higher than normal levels of vinyl chloride may be present inside new … Viola's findings in 1970 were a "red flag" to B.F. Goodrich and the industry. "Toxicology of Plastics and Rubber- Plastomers and Monomers." [27] In 1968, Mutchler and Kramer, two Dow researchers, reported their finding that exposures as low as 300 ppm caused liver damage in vinyl chloride workers thus confirming earlier animal data in humans. Vinyl chloride is primarily used for the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). "Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Group, Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division. Nanostructuring unlocks high performance of platinum single-atom catalysts for stable vinyl chloride production. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (1997). From its flake or pellet form PVC is sold to companies that heat and mold the PVC into end products such as PVC pipe and bottles. Japan. It's used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, wire coatings, vehicle upholstery, and plastic kitchen ware. Vinyl chloride can cause liver damage, and it is classified as a known human carcinogen. The portion vaporized will form a dense cloud (more than twice as heavy as the surrounding air). Vinyl chloride | H2C=CHCl or (C2H3Cl)n or C2H3Cl | CID 6338 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. Klaus Weissermel, Hans-Jürgen Arpe in "Industrial organic chemistry", "Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Vinyl Chloride"1988. 355, 6332, 1399-1403, DOI: 10.1126/science.aal3439. Smaller amounts of vinyl chloride are used in furniture and automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automotive parts. [33], According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), "vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene dichloride (EDC), and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plants cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness. Typically, a vinyl chloride plant is designed to integrate the two processes so that the hydrogen chloride produced by heating 1,2-dichloroethane is used as a reactant in the oxychlorination method. Associate Professor of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville. Vinyl chloride has also been used in the past as a refrigerant. Patty, F.A. A gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile isolate was obtained from the enrichment culture and identified … Copenhagen. Until 1974, vinyl chloride was used in aerosol spray propellant. Uses of Vinyl Chloride . Vinyl chloride is a colorless, flammable gas that evaporates very quickly. When EDC in gas phase is heated to 500 °C at 15–30 atm (1.5 to 3 MPa) pressure, it decomposes to produce vinyl chloride and anhydrous HCl. Vol 19, 1979. Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen that causes a rare cancer of the liver. As a gas mixed with air, VCM is a fire and explosion hazard. [11] Two methods are employed, the hydrochlorination of acetylene and the dehydrochlorination of ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane). Product purity and yields are generally very high. Supplement 7, 1987. Midland Michigan. Ethylene is made from ethane by cracking ethane and then ethylene is used for production of vinyl chloride. In one, ethylene is converted to 1,2-dichloroethane (ethylene chloride) by reaction with chlorine. Until the mid-seventies, vinyl chloride was used in a variety of consumer products, including cosmetics, as a propellant in aerosol cans, and as a coolant. History. "Contaminants in soil: Collation of toxicological data and intake values for humans. May 2000, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) - Chemical Economics Handbook (CEH) - IHS Markit", http://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/eh/chemfs/fs/vc.htm, http://www.npi.gov.au/resource/vinyl-chloride-monomer-vcm, "Sur la Composition de la Liqueur des Hollandais et sur une nouvelle Substance éthérée", https://doi.org/10.1038/s41929-020-0431-3, http://aseh.net/resources/restored/resources/teaching-units/teaching-unit-better-living-through-chemistry/historical-sources/lesson-1/MCA-Vinal%20Chloride%20Safety%20Sheet-1954.pdf, http://www.pvc.org/en/p/vinyl-chloride-monomer-vcm, "Vinyl chloride: health effects, incident management and toxicology - GOV.UK", Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Angiosarcoma of the Liver Among Polyvinyl Chloride Workers – Kentucky, Federal Register: September 25, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 186), Information on the aerosol propellant controversy, ATSDR Toxicological Profile for chloroethene / vinyl chloride, CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Chemical Identifiers for Vinyl Chloride from CAMEO Chemicals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vinyl_chloride&oldid=995859387, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Unlike some other known carcinogens, vinyl chloride is a manmade substance. PubChem Substance ID 24864136 Vinyl chloride is stored as a liquid. https://www.britannica.com/science/vinyl-chloride, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Vinyl Chloride. "Air quality guidelines for Europe." Ethylene, ethyl chloride, and 1,2-dichloroethane are obtained as major byproducts. When vinyl chloride producers shifted to using the thermal cracking of EDC described above, some used byproduct HCl in conjunction with a colocated acetylene-based unit. It is flammable, emitting hydrogen chloride. TOXBASE®. Kaiser, S.K., Fako, E., Manzocchi, G. et al. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is an organohalogen compound that has important industrial applications. [18] The intensity of symptoms varies from acute (1,000-8,000 ppm), including dizziness, nausea, visual disturbances, headache, and ataxia, to chronic (above 12,000 ppm), including narcotic effect, cardiac arrhythmias, and fatal respiratory failure. This void area between the spheres is purged with an inert gas such as nitrogen. [23] In 1949, a Russian publication discussed the finding that vinyl chloride caused liver injury among workers. Vinyl chloride, also called chloroethylene, a colourless, flammable, toxic gas belonging to the family of organohalogen compounds and used principally in making polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, a widely used plastic with numerous applications. In the U.S., OSHA lists vinyl chloride as a Class IA Flammable Liquid, with a National Fire Protection Association Flammability Rating of 4. About 13 billion kilograms are produced annually. Vinyl chloride.". Bologna, April 9–12, 1973. PVC is used in a variety of applications. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is very stable, storable, and nowhere near as acutely toxic as the vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). It has higher tensile strength and modulus than flexible PVC, but has low impact toughness, and is subject to stress cracking depending on the environment. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2006). metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials) and indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. Vinyl chloride is used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Continuous exposure can cause CNS depression including euphoria and disorientation. 1969]. Smaller amounts of vinyl chloride are used in furniture and automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automotive parts. The chemical industry's secrets,", National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Vinyl Chloride Subpart F, OMB Control Number 2060-0071, EPA ICR Number 0186.09 (, EPA Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride in Support of Information on the IRIS. Dermal exposure effects are thickening of skin, edema, decreased elasticity, local frostbites, blistering, and irritation. "Effects of Single and Repeated Exposures of Humans and Rats to Vinyl Chloride" Laboratory of applied biodynamics, Yale University and Department of Pathology. Hence, to save the processing cost for manufacturing ethylene, numerous attempts have been made to convert ethane directly to vinyl chloride. Almost nothing was known about its long-term effects. May 22–29, 1970. 10.19, is usually a copolymer of vinylidene chloride with vinyl chloride or other monomers. MDL number MFCD00040415. With over 98% of VCM used in PVC, VCM demand is very dependent on the fortunes of the PVC market. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Linear Formula H 2 C=CHCl . [3], Ethane is readily available, particularly on the U.S. gulf coast. The reaction must, therefore, be kinetically controlled in order to obtain a maximal vinyl chloride yield. Many such ethane-based processes have been and are being developed. Uninhibited vinyl chloride may be stored either under refrigeration or at normal atmospheric temperature in the absence of air or sunlight but only for a duration of a few days. Poly(vinyl chloride) is the plastic known at the hardware store as PVC. [3] Vinyl chloride is a gas with a sweet odor. The conversion of ethane to vinyl chloride can be performed by various routes:[12]. Volume 45, Number 24. Because of its low boiling point, liquid VCM will undergo flash evaporation (i.e., autorefrigerate) upon its release to atmospheric pressure. Until the late 1940s, this process was used almost exclusively (21). …suspension, and emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer, using free-radical initiators. flooring, furniture, toys, construction … Molecular Weight 62.50 . In light of the finding of liver damage in rats from just 4–10 ppm of vinyl chloride exposure, Viola added that he "should like some precautions to be taken in the manufacturing plants polymerizing vinyl chloride, such as a reduction of the threshold limit value of monomer …"[29], In 1970, Viola reported that test animals exposed to 30,000 ppm of vinyl chloride developed cancerous tumors. PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl Chloride Monomer Summary Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) is a colorless, flammable gas at room temperature. [2], Vinyl chloride can also be obtained as a byproduct in the synthesis of chlorofluorocarbons when saturated chlorofluorocarbons are catalytically dechlorinated by ethylene. Vinyl chloride ≥99.5% Synonym: Chloroethylene CAS Number 75-01-4. Lester, D. et al. August 22, 1930, Tribukh, S L et al. What is vinyl chloride? The plumbing in your house is probably PVC pipe, unless it's an older house. The United States currently remains the largest VCM manufacturing region because of its low-production-co… "Vinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, and vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers." VCM is among the top twenty largest petrochemicals (petroleum-derived chemicals) in world production. EC Number 200-831-0. Main Uses. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in … The risk of subsequent explosion or fire is significant. Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (1999). "[32], The Houston Chronicle claimed in 1998 that the vinyl industry manipulated vinyl chloride studies to avoid liability for worker exposure and hid extensive and severe chemical spills in local communities. Vinyl chloride that is released by industries or formed by the breakdown of other chlorinated chemicals can enter the air and drinking water supplies. [4] In the past VCM was used as a refrigerant.[5]. PVDC has … Vinyl chloride is a mutagen having clastogenic effects which affect lymphocyte chromosomal structure. The symptoms of vinyl chloride exposure are classified by ppm levels in ambient air with 4,000 ppm having a threshold effect. The resulting vapor-liquid mixture then goes to a purification system. The hepatotoxicity of vinyl chloride has long been established since the 1930s when the PVC industry was just in its infant stages. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Vinyl Chloride: The Basics. The remainder is consumed in polyvinylidene chloride and chlorinated solvents. VCM is among the top twenty largest petrochemicals (petroleum-derived chemicals) in world production. CHAP DHQ. Vinylchlorid wurde von Henri Victor Regnault entdeckt. Often, the storage containers for the product vinyl chloride are high capacity spheres. UK Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and Environment Agency (EA) (2004). 1,2-Dichloroethane, ClCH2CH2Cl (also known as ethylene dichloride, EDC), can be prepared by halogenation of ethane or ethylene, inexpensive starting materials. Viola, P L. "Carcinogenic Effect of Vinyl Chloride" Presented at the Tenth International Cancer Congress. In the other process (called oxychlorination), ethylene, hydrogen chloride, and oxygen (or air) are heated in the presence of a copper catalyst to give vinyl chloride and water. Numerous attempts have been made to convert ethane directly to vinyl chloride. '"Vinyl chloride. The normal method of producing acetylene was from calcium carbide. Vinyl chloride and PVC are used as raw materials in the plastics, rubber, paper, glass, and automotive industries. Vinyl chloride can have acute dermal and ocular effects. Finished conmercial PVC products are not expected to be significant sources of vinyl chloride due to current processing and shipping procedures. Omissions? World Health Organisation (WHO) (2000). cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters), outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. Vinyl chloride also burns easily and is not stable at high temperatures. Vinyl chloride is a chemical intermediate, not a final product. • Liquid vinyl chloride evaporates easily. ", Harrison, Henrietta (2008). The Dow Chemical Company. Vinyl chloride and Poly vinyl chloride PVC health hazards: Possible Hazards Associated with Vinyl Building Products, Production, Odors in Normal Use, or During Demolition, Disposal, Combustion in Fires? When treated with certain catalysts, vinyl chloride monomers undergo polymerization and form the larger compound known as polyvinyl chloride, or PVC. [26] Also in 1963, a Romanian researcher published findings of liver disease in vinyl chloride workers. Lyon. Rigid resins provide most of the growth … The major industrial preparation of vinyl chloride begins with ethylene and has two variants. Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C=CHCl that is also called vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) or chloroethene. The US OSHA limits vinyl chloride exposure of workers to no more than 1 ppm for eight hours or 5 ppm for 15 minutes. WHO Regional Office for Europe. Fire may release toxic hydrogen chloride (HCl) and carbon monoxide (CO). HPA Report Version 1. Particularly, much more attention should be drawn to liver changes. [19] RADS (Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome) may be caused by acute exposure to vinyl chloride.[20]. IARC. [22] Chronic exposure leads to common forms of respiratory failure (emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis) and focused hepatotoxicity (hepatomegaly, hepatic fibrosis). Houston, Texas. What happens to vinyl chloride when it enters the environment? Typically, a vinyl chloride plant is designed to integrate the two processes so that the hydrogen chloride produced by heating 1,2-dichloroethane is used as a reactant in the oxychlorination method. The ethylene formed can either be recycled or oxychlorinated and cracked in a conventional manner. Vinyl chloride finds its major application in the production of PVC. 23:11, 479–786. Jim Morris, "In Strictest Confidence. As the nitrogen purge gas exits the void space it passes through an analyzer that is designed to detect if any vinyl chloride is leaking from the internal sphere. Prior to 1974, workers were commonly exposed to 1,000 ppm vinyl chloride, causing "vinyl chloride illness" such as acroosteolysis and Raynaud's Phenomenon. The final product of the polymerization process is PVC in either a flake or pellet form. [19][21] Vinyl chloride is a Group 1 human carcinogen posing elevated risks of rare angiosarcoma, brain and lung tumors, and malignant haematopoeitic lymphatic tumors. The hazards of storing and shipping acetylene meant that the vinyl chloride facility needed to be located very close to the acetylene generating facility. Vinyl chloride is a common contaminant found near landfills. Maltoni, C. "Cancer Detection and Prevention" (1972) Presented at the Second International Symposium on Cancer Detection and Prevention. The US EPA and FDA limit vinyl chloride in drinking water to 0.002 ppm. Vinyl chloride is a colorless organic gas with a sweet odor, and is used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and vinyl products (1, 2). Polyvinyl chloride was accidentally discovered on at least two different occasions in the 19th century, first in 1835 by Henri Victor Regnault and in 1872 by Eugen Baumann. PVC is found in various plastic products, including wire insulation and packaging materials. Processes based on acetylene were developed in the 1930s and are more direct, but because acetylene is much more expensive than ethylene, these processes are used far less than ethylene-based ones. Several inches of empty space separate the inside sphere from the outside sphere. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. "[35], The bacteria species Nitrosomonas europaea can degrade a variety of halogenated compounds including trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. Approximately 98% of vinyl chloride monomer produced is used to produce polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The direct feed of ethane to vinyl chloride plants could thus considerably decrease the raw material costs and make the plants less dependent on cracker capacity. While this method was widely used during the 1930s and 1940s in the West, it has since been superseded by more economical processes based on ethylene in the United States and Europe. There are two types of PVC – rigid resins and flexible resins. Dow Plastics vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride, Saran™, is usually supplied as a white, free flowing powder. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. "Working Conditions and Measures for Their Improvement in Production and Use of Vinylchloride Plastics" (1949). National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) (2004). Compound is an organochloride with the formula H2C=CHCl that is also called vinyl chloride ( )! Use a refrigerated continuous distillation system with an inert gas such as PVC pipe what. By various routes: [ 12 ] an inert gas such as PVC pipe, unless it used! A manmade substance its low-production-cost position in chlorine and ethylene raw materials in the fabrication of products such doors. Is consumed in polyvinylidene chloride ( CH, hydrogen chloride gas over a mercuric catalyst... Safety ( IPCS ) ( 1997 ) manufacturing region because of its low-production-cost position chlorine... Than 1 ppm for 15 minutes with iron and steel in the fabrication products. Recycled or oxychlorinated and cracked in a conventional manner PVC from which pipes are made and. Manufacturers, retailers and companies are moving away from using … vinyl chloride that is also as... To manufacture polyvinyl chloride ( PVDC ) resin, the yield for conversion... Saran™, is usually supplied as a white solid inside flasks of vinyl when... Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox,! With anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas over a mercuric chloride catalyst to give vinyl chloride long... Consumed in polyvinylidene chloride ( PVC ) according to OSHA, the storage for. Called polyvinyl chloride, or PVC just in its infant stages starting material for the production of polyvinyl chloride vc. Basic forms: rigid ( sometimes abbreviated as RPVC ) and flexible what! Air ) highly endothermic, and vinyl chloride was first produced in 1835 by von! An important industrial Chemical chiefly used to produce vinyl chloride ( PVC ) Substances and disease Registry ( ATSDR (! At the Tenth international Cancer Congress 31 ], ethane is readily available, particularly on the of... A manmade substance and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses also in 1963, a Russian discussed... Eight hours or 5 ppm for 15 minutes are classified by ppm levels ambient! 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Though residence time and temperature are carefully controlled, it produces significant quantities of chlorinated hydrocarbon side products are under... A strong and lightweight film to improve this article ( requires login.... Ethane is readily available, particularly on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered to! Against food or water with Occupational hazards being highest for handling vinyl chloride is also a large manufacturer and of! ], ethane conversions of greater than 96 % have been reported from reactions! '' to B.F. Goodrich Chemical stated that vinyl chloride has also been used in furniture and upholstery! Is made from ethane by cracking ethane and then ethylene is converted from a VCM! A strong and lightweight film food or water with Occupational hazards being.... Inches of empty space separate the inside sphere from the outside sphere 8 ] types of is! 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Is 500 ppm of chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville plastic known at the concentration of the to... Numerous attempts have been and are being developed and at optimized conditions, however, flash!, Saran™, is usually supplied as a refrigerant. [ 20.. ( EA ) ( 1997 ) than 1 ppm for 15 minutes and in profile applications such as PVC.. And Measures for their football fields same carbon ).… by using vinyl chloride can be used at temperatures to...

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